A Guide to the Amphibians
and Reptiles of California

Western Rattlesnake - Crotalus oreganus

Great Basin Rattlesnake - Crotalus oreganus lutosus

Klauber, 1930

(= Crotalus lutosus; = Crotalus viridis lutosus)

Click on a picture for a larger view

Orange: Range of this subspecies in California
Crotalus oreganus lutosus - Great Basin Rattlesnake

Range of other subspecies in California:

Dark Blue: Crotalus oreganus helleri -
Southern Pacific Rattlesnake

RedCrotalus oreganus oreganus -
Northern Pacific Rattlesnake

Gray: Intergrade Range

Click on the map for a topographical view

Map with California County Names

observation link

Venomous and Potentially Dangerous!

great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
Adult, from the eastern border of Siskiyou county
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
Adult, from the eastern border of Siskiyou county Adult, Mono County © Michael Clarkson. Specimen courtesy of Jeff Mintz Adult, Mono County © Michael Clarkson. Specimen courtesy of Jeff Mintz
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
Juvenile, Mono County © Michael Clarkson. Specimen courtesy of
Jeff Mintz
Adult, Mono County
© David Tobler
Adult, Mono County
© Ryan Sikola
Adult, Mono County
© Ryan Sikola
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
Adult, Mono County © Kenny Elliott Adult, Mono County
© Chris Morrison
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake    
Adult, 8,000 ft. elevation (2438 m)
Mono County © Chris Lima
Adult, Siskiyou County
Tails and Rattles
Adult tail and rattle Adult tail and rattle Adult tail and rattle  
southern pacific rattlesnake northern pacific rattlesnake    
The tail of a newborn juvenile has only a single silent yellow button on the end of its tail, as we see on this Southern Pacific Rattlesnake. As it grows it will add rattle segments at the end of the tail behind the button, which remains at the end. Sometimes the rattle is broken off -
as you can see on this adult Northern Pacific Rattlesnake from San Mateo County is missing its rattle, possibly the result of a predator attack or maybe it was crushed off by a bike or car tire. It's rare to find a rattlesnake without a rattle, but it proves the importance of recognizing the pattern, body shape, and head shape of the rattlesnakes in your area, because you can't always identify a rattlesnake just by the rattle at the end of the tail.
© Dave Hood
Great Basin Rattlesnakes from outside California
Adult, White Pine County, Nevada
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
great basin rattlesnake
Adult, Washoe County, Nevada Juvenile, Washoe County, Nevada
© Don Johnson
Adult, Mineral County, Nevada.
© Brad Alexander
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
Den site in Washoe County, Nevada, where snakes have been seen for at least 20 years.
© Tom Green -
Adult, Mineral County, Nevada.
© Brad Alexander
great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake
Adult, Washoe County, Nevada
Juvenile, Washoe County, Nevada
© Lou Silva
Adult, White Pine County, Nevada
great basin rattlesnake      
Adult, Elko County © Bill Bachman      
C. o. oreganus can be similar to C. o. lutosus near their southern range limit.
C. stephensi
can also appear similar if you don't see the tail.
northern pacific rattlesnake northern pacific rattlesnake great basin rattlesnake northern pacific rattlesnake
Adult, Greenhorn Mountains,
Kern County
Adult C. o. oreganus from near Three Rivers in Tulare County.
© Robert Herndon
Adult C. o. oreganus, 9,000 ft. elevation, Sierra Nevada Mountains,
Fresno County © Terry Goyan
Panamint Rattlesnake - Crotalus stephensi, Inyo County © Carl Brune
northern pacific rattlesnake northern pacific rattlesnake    
Juvenile C. o. oreganus, southern Sierra Nevada, Kern County © Jared Heald Adult C. o. oreganus, Tulare County
© Steven Elliiott
Crotalus oreganus oreganus near its southern range limit is variable in appearance, often looking very much like C. o. lutosus. An example is the Kern County snake seen in the row above. Identification of rattlesnakes found in this region can be confusing and open to debate. Some of these controversies should be resolved when the results of further studies on these species are published.

According to Robert Hansen who has studied the area in depth: "Among populations of "oreganus" inhabiting arid landscapes near their southern range limits (e.g., southern San Joaquin Valley, Carrizo Plain), there is a tendency toward small size, light ground color, and reduced dorsal blotch size...features that cause these snakes to superficially resemble lutosus."..."The southern extent of the range of lutosus in eastern California (e.g., the Mono/Inyo counties region) has been mapped in reasonable detail, and thus far, there are no known instances where the ranges of oreganus and lutosus come into contact.
However, farther north, where the Sierra Nevada crest is much lower and the potential for populations of oreganus and lutosus to meet is likely greater, careful field studies are lacking. Ultimately, reliance on features of coloration and pattern to distinguish one form from the other in areas of potential contact is not advised."
How to Tell the Difference Between Rattlesnakes and Gophersnakes
Gopher Snake Rattlesnake Comparison Sign sign Gopher Snake Rattlesnake Comparison Sign Gopher Snake Rattlesnake Comparison Sign
Harmless and beneficial gophersnakes are sometimes mistaken for dangerous rattlesnakes. Gophersnakes are often killed unnecessarily because of this confusion.
(It's also not necessary to kill every rattlesnake.)

It is easy to avoid this mistake by learning to tell the difference between the two families of snakes. The informational signs shown above can help to educate you about these differences. (Click to enlarge).

If you can't see enough detail on a snake to be sure it is not a rattlesnake or if you have any doubt that it is harmless, leave it alone.
You should never handle a snake unless you are absolutely sure that it is not dangerous.

great basin rattlesnake habitat great basin rattlesnake habitat great basin rattlesnake habitat great basin rattlesnake habitat
Habitat, 4,400 ft. Siskiyou county Habitat, 4,300 ft. Siskiyou county Habitat, Surprise Valley, Modoc County Habitat, Siskiyou county lava beds
great basin rattlesnake habitat great basin rattlesnake habitat lutosus habitat  
Adult in habitat, Mineral County, Nevada.
© Brad Alexander
Habitat, Mono County
Habitat, Great Basin desert,
4,000 ft., Lassen County
Videos and Sound
great basin rattlesnake habitat great basin rattlesnake habitat speaker

A Great Basin Rattlesnake rattles at night in the Nevada desert. A Great Basin Rattlesnake crawls under a bush and rattles in the afternoon in eastern Siskiyou County. Listen to a Great Basin Rattlesnake rattling.  © Jeff Rice
Not to be used without permission.
(Listen to more recordings of this snake at the Western Soundscape Archive)
sign rattlesnake sign sign
California rest stop warning sign.
Click on the picture to see more rattlesnake signs.


Rattlesnakes are important members of the natural community. They will not attack, but if disturbed or cornered, they will defend themselves. Reasonable watchfulness should be sufficient to avoid snakebite. Give them distance and respect.

"Rattlesnakes are also among the most reasonable forms of dangerous wildlife: their first line of defense is to remain motionless; if you surprise them or cut off their retreat, they offer an audio warning; if you get too close, they head for cover. Venom is intended for prey so they're reluctant to bite, and 25 to 50 percent of all bites are dry - no venom is injected."   Leslie Anthony. Snakebit: Confessions of a Herpetologist. Greystone Books, 2008.

Rattlesnakes are typically described as poisonous, but they are actually venomous.
A poisonous snake is one that is harmful to touch or eat. A venomous snake injects dangerous venom into its victim.

A bite from a rattlesnake can be extremely dangerous, but rattlesnakes should not be characterized as aggressive and vicious, striking and biting without provocation, as they are often shown. If rattlesnakes are given some space and enough time to escape to a safe place, they will usually just crawl away as fast as possible to avoid confrontation. Rattlesnakes will not strike without a reason: they will strike at a potential meal and they will defend themselves from anything they perceive as dangerous. They avoid striking and biting because it uses up their valuable supply of venom which they need to kill and digest their food.

Rattlesnakes are often portrayed with the body partly coiled, the tail rattling loudly, and the head raised up and ready to strike, but they do not need to coil up this way to strike and bite. This display is a warning not to come any closer. It's a defensive behavior that some rattlesnakes use when they sense that crawling away would put them in danger of attack.

Rattlesnakes do not always rattle a warning. Sometimes they rattle loudly to warn potential enemies of their presence, but other times they remain silent when they sense a threat, choosing to remain still to rely on their cryptic color and pattern to let them blend into their surroundings to hide from the threat. Making a noise in this situation risks advertising their presence. They also use their natural camouflage to hunt by sitting still, without rattling, trying to remain invisible as they wait for a warm-blooded prey animal to pass close enough to strike.


Dangerously Venomous

A bite from this snake can cause death or serious illness or injury in humans that may require immediate medical care.

(Commonly called a "poisonous" snake to indicate that its bite is dangerous, but that is not correct. It should be called a "venomous" snake. A poisonous snake can harm you if you eat it. A venomous snake can harm you if it bites you.)

Adults of this species range from 15 - 65 inches long, ( 38 - 165 cm) but typically the adults seen are 3 - 4 feet long.
Neonates are about 10.5 inches in length (27 cm) (Bartlett, 2009).

A heavy-bodied pit viper, with a thin neck, a large triangular head, and a rattle on the end of the tail consisting of loose interlocking hollow segments. 
Pupils are elliptical.
Scales are keeled.

Rattlesnakes are "pit vipers" which means they have two pits that are used to sense heat when hunting warm-blooded prey - with one pit on each side of the front of the head above the mouth.
Color and Pattern
The ground color is variable, matching the environment - pale grey, tan, light yellow, buff colored.
The back is marked with dark blotches with light centers, usually in the shape of bars or ovals, about as wide as the spaces between them.
The underside is pale, sometimes weakly mottled.
Two light stripes extend diagonally across the sides of the head, but they are sometimes faded and not evident.
The tail is barred, and without white rings.
Young are born with a bright yellow tail with no rattle - just a single button which does not make a sound. They grow rattles and lose the yellow color as they age.
The pattern is brighter on juveniles than on adults.
Similar Snakes
This is the only rattlesnake found in its range. Two other subspecies of this species also occur in California.
Notes on identifying subspecies of Western Rattlesnakes, Crotalus oreganus, found in California.

Life History and Behavior

Primarily nocturnal and crepuscular during periods of excessive daytime heat, but also active during daylight when the temperature is more moderate.
Not active during cooler periods in Winter.
Fangs and Venom
Two large hollow movable fangs are located at the front of the upper jaw are folded backwards when not used. The fangs are connected to venom glands so that when the snake bites, the fangs swing forward rapidly to stab the prey and inject a toxic venom that quickly immobilizes the prey. A rattlesnake can control the amount of venom injected. The fangs can be replaced if broken.

Bites that inject venom into humans are potentially dangerous without immediate medical treatment.
Sometimes a rattlesnake bites but does not inject venom. These are called "dry bites." A dry bite may still require medical attention.
Even a dead snake can bite and inject venom if the jaws open and close reflexively when they are touched.

A bite from any kind of rattlesnake of any age or any size should be treated as a serious medical emergency, but the bite of a juvenile rattlesnake is not more dangerous than the bite of an adult.
Experts disagree whether or not juvenile rattlesnake venom is more potent than adult rattlesnake venom, but this does not really make much difference in the severity of a bite.
While adult rattlesnakes can control the amount of venom they inject depending on their needs (small animals need less venom, a defensive or warning bite may need no venom, etc.), it is often assumed that juvenile rattlesnakes do not have the same ability and that they always inject the full amount of venom they have available. Some studies show this is not true. There is also no proof that adult rattlesnakes are more likely than juveniles to bite without injecting venom when they are biting as a warning. Regardless of these things, adults have far more venom to inject than juveniles so the potential danger from the bite of an adult is significantly higher than the danger from the bite of a juvenile. Even when an adult does not inject the full amount of venom it has available, it most likely injects more venom than a juvenile would inject.

Venomous snakes are immune to the venom of their own species, so if a snake is bitten during interactions with other snakes of its species during territorial fights or during mating or if it accidentally bites itself, it will not suffer from the venom. However, they are not typically immune to the venom of other species of snakes.
Sound - The Rattle
When alarmed, a rattlesnake shakes its tail back and forth. The movement rubs the rattle segments together producing a buzzing sound which serves as a warning. Juveniles are born with only a silent button at the end of the tail.

A new rattle segment is added each time the skin is shed, which can be more than one time per year.
Diet and Feeding
Eats small mammals, including ground squirrels, mice, rats, rabbits and hares, birds, lizards, snakes, frogs, and insects.

Prey is found while the snake is actively moving, or by ambush, where the snake waits near lizard or rodent trails, striking at and releasing passing prey. The snake then follows the trail of the envenomated animal and swallows it whole.

Pits on the sides of the head sense heat. These heat sensors help the snake to locate prey by their warmth.
rattlesnake perception

Click on this picture to see an illustrated interpretation of the various ways pit vipers (including rattlesnakes) perceive their prey, using their eyes, their sense of smell, their ability to detect vibrations, and their ability to sense heat.
© Frank Buchter
Rattlesnakes are ovoviviparous or live-bearing. The mother keeps her fertilized eggs inside her body and gives birth to living young.
Mating typically occurs in the spring. Males search extensively for females during the mating season.
Females probably start bearing young at three years of age and breed annually. (Klauber, 1982)
An average litter consists of 4 to 12 young which are born from August to October. (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2013)
Neonates are about 10.5 inches in length (27 cm) (Bartlett, 2009).

Male "Combat Dance"

Adult males engage in a ritual "Combat Dance" during the spring breeding season and at other times. Throughout much of history this activity was presumed to be a mating male and female instead of two competing males. Despite the common name, it is not combat as neither male is injured. And it's not a dance, it's essentially a wrestling match in which necks and forebodies are intertwined, with the stronger snake slamming the smaller one to the ground until the weaker snake leaves the area. Most bouts end in a draw.
"Certainly the presence of a female is not necessary to stimulate males to dance."
"Dancing is not restricted to a single season of the year."
(Klauber, 1982)
Inhabits rocky hillsides, barren flats, sagebrush, grassy plains, and agricultural areas.

Geographical Range
This subspecies, Crotalus oreganus lutosus - Great Basin Rattlesnake, is found in California in the far northeastern corner and in a small region east of the Sierras near the Mono Lake area. It continues outside the state north into eastern Oregon, and east to western Utah, southern Idaho, most of Nevada, and barely into extreme northwestern Arizona.

The species Crotalus oreganus - Western Rattlesnake, occurs from the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California north through most of California except the southern deserts, through Oregon and eastern Washington into British Columbia, Canada, and east into Idaho, Nevada, Utah, southwestern Wyoming, western Colorado,and northern Arizona.

Full Species Range Map
Elevational Range
Elevation record of 12,112 ft. (3962 m.) Wheeler Peak, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada. (Herpetological Review 41(1), 2010)

Notes on Taxonomy
The taxonomy of Western Rattlesnakes is controversial with several different theories. Some of these theories recommend making the three subspecies found in California full species, but this has not been widely accepted. Instead, most authorities seem to favor the split of the Western Rattlesnake species Crotalus viridis into two species - Crotalus viridis, and Crotalus oreganus.

Some authorities still use the former species name Crotalus viridis, recognizing the subspecies covered on this page as Crotalus viridis lutosus.

A study published in February 2016* used head shapes and genetic analyses to determine that there are 6 full species of western rattlesnakes found in the former Crotalus viridis complex and suggested the following names, with the three species found in California shown here at the top of the list.
If this taxonomy is accepted, the ranges and common names of western rattlesnakes found in California will remain the same, but they will be full species instead of subspecies.

Crotalus helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
Crotalus lutosus - Geat Basin Rattlesnake
Crotalus oreganus - Northern Pacific Rattlesnake

Crotalus cerberus
- Arizona Black Rattlesnake
Crotalus concolor - Midget Faded Rattlesnake
Crotalus viridis - Prairie Rattlesnake

* Mark A. Davis, Marlis R. Douglas, Michael L. Collyer, Michael E. Douglas. Correction: Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis). PLOS ONE, 2016; 11 (2): e0149712 DOI:

A 2002 study** split the Western Rattlesnake species Crotalus viridis into 7 distinct species:

Crotalus oreganus oreganus
becomes Crotalus oreganus,
Crotalus oreganus helleri
becomes Crotalus helleri
Crotalus oreganus lutosus
becomes Crotalus lutosus.
Crotalys abyssus
Crotalus cerberus
Crotalus concolor
Crotalus viridis

The common names remain the same.

** Douglas, Douglas, Schuett, Porras, & Holycross
[2002. Phylogeography of the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) Complex, With Emphasis on the Colorado Plateau]. Pp. 11-50. In Biology of the Vipers [Schuett, Höggren, Douglas, and Greene (editors). Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah]

Alternate and Previous Names (Synonyms)

Timber Rattlesnake (It is not uncommon for a rattlesnake found in a forested area in California to be called a Timber Rattlesnake. The true Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is not found in California. It occurs from southeast Minnesota down to central Texas and east to northern Florida up to south-central New Hampshire.)

Crotalus oreganus lutosus - Great Basin Rattlesnake (Stebbins & McGinnis 2012, SSAR 2012)
Crotalus viridis lutosus - Great Basin Rattlesnake (Wright & Wright 1957, Stebbins 1966, 1985, Klauber 1982, 2003)
Crotalus viridis lutosus (Stebbins 1954)
Crotalus oreganus - Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus lucifer; Crotalus confluentus; Crotalus lecontei, part; Crotalus ruber, part; Crotalus adamanteus var. lucifer; Crotalus oreganus var. lucifer; Crotalus confluentus lucifer; Caudisona lucifer; Crotalus Hallowelli; Crotalus adamanteus atrox, part. Black Rattlesnake; California Rattlesnake; Arizona Diamond Rattlesnake, part; Confluent Rattlesnake; Oregon Rattlesnake; Missouri Rattlesnake; Hallowell's Rattlesnake; Southern Rattlesnake) (Grinnell and Camp 1917)
Crotalus viridis lutosus (Klauber 1930)
Crotalus viridis (Rafinesque 1818)

Conservation Issues  (Conservation Status)
Family Viperidae Vipers Crotalidae - Pitvipers
Genus Crotalus Rattlesnakes Linnaeus, 1758
Species oreganus Western Rattlesnake Holbrook, 1840

lutosus Great Basin Rattlesnake Klauber, 1930
Original Description
Crotalus viridis - Rafinesque, 1818 - Amer. Month. Mag. Crit. Rev., Vol. 4, No. 1, Nov. p. 41
Crotalus viridis lutosus - Klauber, 1930 - Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 100

from Original Description Citations for the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America © Ellin Beltz

Meaning of the Scientific Name
Crotalus - Greek - krotalon - a rattle - refers to the rattle on the tail
- belonging to the state of Oregon - referring to the type locality, "banks of Oregon or Columbia River"
lutosus - Latin - muddy, full of mud - referring to the brownish dorsal color

from Scientific and Common Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America - Explained © Ellin Beltz

Related or Similar California Snakes
C. o. helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
C. o. oreganus - Northern Pacific Rattlesnake
C. atrox - Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake
C. s. scutulatus - Northern Mohave Rattlesnake
C. stephensi - Panamint Rattlesnake

More Information and References
California Department of Fish and Wildlife

Living With Rattlesnakes

California Department of Fish and Wildlife: Rattlesnakes in California

University of California: Rattlesnakes Management Guide

Florida Museum of Natural History: How to Safely Coexist With Snakes

The Tucson Herpetological Society: Living With Venomous Reptiles

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife: Living With Snakes

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Venomous Snakes Melissa Kaplan's Rattlesnake Information Page

Southwestern Field Herping Association: Venomous Snake Safety

Snake Bites

California Poison Control System (search for "rattlesnake bite")

UCI Health - What to do if you're bitten by a rattlesnake

Snakebite Safety! How to Effectively Avoid, Identify, and Treat a Snake Bite (Includes all of the U.S.A.)

Don't Use Snakebite Suction Devices :
Snakebite Suction Devices Don't Remove Venom: They Just Suck
(Sean P. Bush, MD - Annals Of Emergency Medicine 43:2 pages 187-188 February 2004.)

Bay Nature Magazine - Are Baby Rattlesnakes the Most Dangerous Biters?

The Amazing Story of Andy Cat - a very lucky pet cat who was bitten by a rattlesnake and survived, thanks to the smart actions of its owners.

Wickipedia List of Fatal Snake Bites in the United States

Stebbins, Robert C., and McGinnis, Samuel M.  Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of California: Revised Edition (California Natural History Guides) University of California Press, 2012.

Stebbins, Robert C. California Amphibians and Reptiles. The University of California Press, 1972.

Flaxington, William C. Amphibians and Reptiles of California: Field Observations, Distribution, and Natural History. Fieldnotes Press, Anaheim, California, 2021.

Samuel M. McGinnis and Robert C. Stebbins. Peterson Field Guide to Western Reptiles & Amphibians. 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2018.

Stebbins, Robert C. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.

Behler, John L., and F. Wayne King. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Powell, Robert., Joseph T. Collins, and Errol D. Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians and Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. The University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Bartlett, R. D. & Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Snakes of Western North America (North of Mexico) and Hawaii. University Press of Florida, 2009.

Bartlett, R. D. & Alan Tennant. Snakes of North America - Western Region. Gulf Publishing Co., 2000.

Brown, Philip R. A Field Guide to Snakes of California. Gulf Publishing Co., 1997.

Ernst, Carl H., Evelyn M. Ernst, & Robert M. Corker. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003.

Taylor, Emily. California Snakes and How to Find Them. Heyday, Berkeley, California. 2024.

Wright, Albert Hazen & Anna Allen Wright. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Cornell University Press, 1957.

Joseph Grinnell and Charles Lewis Camp. A Distributional List of the Amphibians and Reptiles of California. University of California Publications in Zoology Vol. 17, No. 10, pp. 127-208. July 11, 1917.

Conservation Status

The following conservation status listings for this animal are taken from the January 2024 State of California Special Animals List and the January 2024 Federally Listed Endangered and Threatened Animals of California list (unless indicated otherwise below.) Both lists are produced by multiple agencies every year, and sometimes more than once per year, so the conservation status listing information found below might not be from the most recent lists. To make sure you are seeing the most recent listings, go to this California Department of Fish and Wildlife web page where you can search for and download both lists:

A detailed explanation of the meaning of the status listing symbols can be found at the beginning of the two lists. For quick reference, I have included them on my Special Status Information page.

If no status is listed here, the animal is not included on either list. This most likely indicates that there are no serious conservation concerns for the animal. To find out more about an animal's status you can also go to the NatureServe and IUCN websites to check their rankings.

This snake is not included on the Special Animals List, which indicates that there are no significant conservation concerns for it in California.

Organization Status Listing  Notes
NatureServe Global Ranking
NatureServe State Ranking
U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) None
California Endangered Species Act (CESA) None
California Department of Fish and Wildlife None
Bureau of Land Management None
USDA Forest Service None


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