CaliforniaHerps.com

A Guide to the Amphibians
and Reptiles of California





A California Tiger Salamander Breeding Pond
Shown Monthly Over a Period of Several Years

 






 



observation link

 
 

One habitat picture can never show the whole story, so these are pictures of a small Contra Costa County pond located at approximately 1,400 feet in elevation (427 meters) as it looked in different months of different years, showing how the pond and its surroundings change over the seasons and the years.

California Tiger Salamanders, California Red-legged Frogs, Sierran Treefrogs, and California Toads have been observed breeding in the pond. Diablo Range Gartersnakes, Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes, and Western Yellow-bellied Racers have been observed hunting in or around the edge of the pond.

Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes, Pacific Gophersnakes, Pacific Ring-necked Snakes, Sharp-tailed Snakes, California Alligator Lizards, Coast Range Fence Lizards, Skilton's Skinks, California Slender Salamanders, and Yellow-eyed Ensatina have been observed in the grasses and woods near the pond, along with the many California Ground Squirrels that have their burrows all around the pond and the cows that feed around and drink from the pond.


Years
Month Compilations
 

A California Tiger Salamander Breeding Pond Shown Month to Month Starting in 2013
(Including Several Years of Record Drought )


When I asked Mark Gary to help me get a year of photographs of this pond to show how it changes during the seasons we did not know that 2013 was going to be the dryest year ever recorded since the state began measuring rainfall in 1849, or that it would be in the middle of a major drought, lasting from 2011-2017. So instead of a look at the pond in a typical year, we got to show what the pond looked like in a drought year. 2014 started very dry but by March there was enough water for treefrogs and toads to breed, then no rain until late November and a huge rainstorm in early December when it filled up again. 2015 was another dry year but as in the previous years there was still enough precipitation to fill the pond enough for the salamanders to return and breed. Conditions seemed to return to normal after 2016, with the pond filling up and drying out for a couple of months. In the Fall of 2017 the pond was bulldozed and a new outflow channel was created on a different side of the pond. 2018 was a good rainfall year, though the pond did dry out completely again by November. The early part of 2019 was very wet, with a dry summer, but the pond never dried out completely. After heavy rains at the beginning of December, California Tiger Salamanders were back in the pond and breeding.

tiger salamander habitat
Click to see the pond during every consecutive month of 2016 in an animated loop of Mark Gary's photographs. (Made by Zachary Cava.)
2020
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early January, 2020 © Mark Gary
California Tiger Salamander eggs laid in mid December are still visible in the pond looking like they're close to hatching.
February 3rd, 2020 © Mark Gary
The first Sierran Treefrog eggs have appeared.
March 2nd, 2020, after zero rainfall in the entire month of February. (The last time that happened, Abe Lincoln was president.) California Tiger Salamander unfolded embryos observed. Other eggs were observed already hatched on 2/20. © Mark Gary April 2nd, 2020, with some new greenery after it finally rained a little bit.
© Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
May 1st, 2020. A small amount of toad breeding in area ponds was finally observed in mid April, a single mass of red-legged frog eggs in this pond were destroyed after a few days, probably trampled by cattle, and no tiger salamander larvae have been seen lately. This has not been a good year for area amphibians.
© Mark Gary
June 2nd, 2020. No tiger salamander larvae present. Eggs were laid and they hatched, but none of the larvae appear to have survived. © Mark Gary July 2nd, 2020. The pond is prematurely dry and free of vegetation, with few amphibians remaining. © Mark Gary August 3rd, 2020. Nothing but dirt.
It looks like a larger pond nearby might also dry up this year, which would be unusual. © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
September 16, 2020 © Mark Gary
There once was a pond here. Massive wildfires in the region closed access to the pond, but permission was granted to take a picture. Fortunately, the area around the pond was not burned.
October 2nd, 2020 © Mark Gary
The sky is full of haze from massive wildfires burning in the region in what has already become California's worst fire season on record, with the season not yet over.
   
     
2019
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early January, 2019. © Mark Gary
The pond is full of water and California Tiger Salamander eggs are once again present.
February 3rd, 2019. California Tiger Salamander and Sierran Treefrog eggs present. © Mark Gary February 5th, 2019 after light snowfall.
© Mark Gary
Early March, 2019, between rainstorms in a very wet winter. © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early April, 2019. © Mark Gary
Even greener than March was.
Early May, 2019 © Mark Gary. Small tiger salamander larvae, red-legged frogs, and gartersnakes observed. Early June, 2019 © Mark Gary. Pond is still overflowing. Large larvae present along with predatory gartersnakes. Early July, 2019 © Mark Gary. The pond level is high for July as it was last year, due to a wet year and maybe the Fall 2017 pond construction. Tiger Salamander larvae, a few tadpoles, and California Red-legged Frogs are visible.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early August, 2019 © Mark Gary. There's lots of water left for August and still lots of amphibian activity. California Tiger Salamander larvae, California Red-legged Frog tadpoles, and recently transformed juvenile red-legged frogs and Sierran Treefrogs are also present. Early September, 2019 © Mark Gary.
With plenty of water remaining, the pond is full of recently-metamorphosed California Red-legged Frogs and California Tiger Salamander larvae are still present.
October 1st, 2019 © Mark Gary.
Tiger salamander larvae remain in the pond, which is unusual for October. Many recently-metamorphosed California Red-legged Frogs also remain in the pond.
November 1st, 2019 © Mark Gary.
A mature tiger salamander larva was found near the end of the month, so maybe it will overwinter. Few recently-metamorphosed California Red-legged Frogs remain, perhaps a result of recent cold weather.
tiger salamander habitat      
December 2nd, 2019, just after the first heavy soaking rain of the season, which began the night of December 1st, after five days of light rain. © Mark Gary.

The afternoon of the 3rd, several adult California tiger salamanders were observed swimming in the murky pond. These were probably males awaiting the arrival of females. No sign of eggs or amplexus was observed.

No sign of eggs was observed on the 6th. Eggs were first seen on the 9th. Evidence of a larger breeding event was then observed on the 11th, including several adults remaining in the water.
     
     
2018
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
January 1st, 2018 © Mark Gary
The pond is shrinking from lack of rain but a few mature eggs are still visible, either still developing, or maybe they're not viable.
February 1st, 2018. The pond is full again, and treefrogs are breeding. © Mark Gary February 27th, 2018 © Mark Gary March 23rd, 2018 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early April, 2018 © Mark Gary
Toad eggs present
Early May, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae observed eating toad tadpoles. Diablo Range Gartersnake observed eating tiger salamander larva.
Early June, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae observed hunting tadpoles.
Early July, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae still observed in pond with tadpoles.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early August, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae still observed in pond but not tadpoles.
September 1st, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae still observed in the puddle.
Early October, 2018 © Mark Gary
The pond is reduced to a puddle once again. A cow got stuck in the mud and had to be pulled out, so the puddle has been temporarily fenced off to prevent any more stranded cows.
Early November, 2018 © Mark Gary
Almost completely dry. Temporary fence still in place.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
Mid November, 2018 © Mark Gary
No rain yet. Temporary cow fence removed.
Early December, 2018 © Mark Gary
After a little rain, the pond is once again ready for salamander breeding.
   
     
2017
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early January, 2017 © Mark Gary
Following new heavy rains, the pond contains new CA Tiger salamander eggs.
Mid January, 2017 © Mark Gary
Pond still contains CA Tiger salamander eggs.
Early February, 2017 © Mark Gary
Early March, 2017 © Mark Gary
Sierran Treefrog eggs are hatched, CA Red-legged Frog egg laying has begun, CA Tiger Salamander larvae are visible.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early April, 2017 © Mark Gary
Sierran Treefrogs have laid more eggs.
Early May, 2017 © Mark Gary Early June, 2017 © Mark Gary Early July, 2017 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Mid July, 2017. CA Tiger Salamander larvae still visible coming up for air.
© Mark Gary
Early August, 2017. Tiger salamander larvae still visible in pond. © Mark Gary Early September, 2017 © Mark GaryRecord heat, but water still present with many young CA Red-legged frogs seen in the pond.
Early October, 2017
© Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Mid October, 2017 © Mark Gary
Heavy equipment has been used to modify the earthen dam that maintains the pond. The outflow channel into the nearby creek has been moved to the other side of the pond and reinforced with rocks. The former outflow channel had eroded to the point that it was keeping the pond at a lower level when it was full. It will be very interesting to observe the pond in the coming years to see if this maintenance causes the pond to increase in size so much that it stops drying out. If the pond does not dry out, that creates the opportunity for American Bullfrogs, which prefer a permanent water source, to move in, which could be disasterous for the tiger salamanders and other amphibians that currently utilize the pond. Fortunately, maybe miraculously, bullfrogs have not yet been found in the permanent pond nearby or in any other nearby pond, to my knowledge.
Early November, 2017, after the pond has been modified. © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat      
December 1st, 2017 © Mark Gary
After only a little bit of November rain, the pond again contains some water and a lot of California Tiger Salamander eggs that were probably laid in late November.
     
2016
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
January 3rd, 2016 © Mark Gary
CA Tiger Salamander eggs are present
January 31st, 2016 © Mark Gary 
CA Tiger salamander eggs still present
February 6th, 2016 © Mark Gary 
CA Tiger salamander embryos with gills are visible. Some have already hatched.
Early March, 2016 © Mark Gary 
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early April, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early May, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early June, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early July, 2016 © Mark Gary 
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Mid August, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early September, 2016 © Mark Gary
For the past three years, the pond has been completely dry in September, but not this year.
Early October, 2016 © Mark Gary
Nothing left but a puddle.
Mid October, 2016 © Mark Gary
The rains have begun.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
Early November, 2016 © Mark Gary
After a lot of rainfall, news reports are declaring the drought over in Northern California. The pond seems to agree when compared to the lack of water in the three previous Novembers.
December 3rd, 2016 © Mark Gary
CA Tiger salamander eggs were laid this year between November 26th and December 3rd.

   
2015
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early January, 2015 (Full of Sierran treefrog eggs and CA Tiger Salamander eggs.) © Mark Gary Early February, 2015 - no rain since December. © Mark Gary Early March, 2015 © Mark Gary Early April, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early May, 2015. Toxic Blue Green Algae has been discovered. © Mark Gary Mid May, 2015, after thunderstorms 
© Mark Gary
Early June, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early July, 2015 © Mark Gary Early August, 2015 © Mark Gary Nothing but dirt again, Early September, 2015 © Mark Gary Early October, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
Early November, 2015 © Mark Gary The pond is filling up, early December, 2015 © Mark Gary    
2014
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
January, 2014 © Mark Gary


February 1, 2014 © Mark Gary


February 17, 2014 © Mark Gary
After the first large rainstorm in over a year. Sierran Treefrogs quickly laid eggs in the water. Maybe the CA Tiger salamanders will breed this year, after all.
Early March, 2014 © Mark Gary


tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Late March, 2014 © Mark Gary


Mid April, 2014 © Mark Gary Early May, 2014 © Mark Gary
Mark reports seeing California Tiger Salamander larvae in the pond. He heard from an East Bay Parks biologist that tiger salamander larvae have not been seen at most of the known breeding locations this year.
Early June, 2014 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
June 21, 2014 © Mark Gary Early July, 2014 © Mark Gary Mid July, 2014 - dry again © Mark Gary Early August, 2014 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early September, 2014 © Mark Gary Mid October, 2014 © Mark Gary Early November, 2014 © Mark Gary The pond is full again, early December, 2014 © Mark Gary
2013 (beginning in April)
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
April, 2013  © Mark Gary
May, 2013 © Mark Gary June, 2013 © Mark Gary July, 2013 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
August, 2013 © Mark Gary September, 2013 © Mark Gary October, 2013 © Mark Gary
November, 2013 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat      
December, 2013 © Mark Gary
     
     
Years Before 2013
California Red-legged Frog Habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
April, 2003 March, 2006 March, 2010 June, 2010
tiger salamander habitat pond tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
June, 2010 August, 2010 - As I was trying to photograph tiger salamander larvae in the water, a couple of biologists came and dragged a net through the pond. They found Sierran treefrogs with deformities caused by parasites spread by snails, and they told me that the dreaded chytrid fungus is here, too. February, 2011
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
March, 2011 May, 2011 July, 2011 August, 2011
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
November, 2011 © Mark Gary January, 2012 (Breeding Season) September, 2012 © Mark Gary
       

Comparisons of the California Tiger Salamander Breeding Pond During the Same Month of Different Years

     
January
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
January, 2012 (Breeding Season) January, 2014 © Mark Gary January, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
January 3rd, 2016 © Mark Gary
CA Tiger Salamander eggs are present.
January 31st, 2016 © Mark Gary 
CA Tiger salamander eggs still present.
Early January, 2017 © Mark Gary
Following new heavy rains, the pond contains new CA Tiger salamander eggs.
Mid January, 2017 © Mark Gary
Pond still contains CA Tiger Salamander eggs.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat  
January 1st, 2018 © Mark Gary
The pond is shrinking from lack of rain but a few mature eggs are still visible, either still developing, or maybe they're not viable.
Early January, 2019 © Mark Gary
The pond is full of water and California Tiger Salamander eggs are once again present.
Early January, 2020 © Mark Gary
California Tiger Salamander eggs laid in mid December are still visible in the pond looking like they're close to hatching. The water level is fairly low compared to most Januarys shown here.
 
     
February
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
February, 2011
Early February, 2014 © Mark Gary Early February, 2015 © Mark Gary February 6th, 2016 © Mark Gary 
CA Tiger salamander embryos with gills are visible. Some have already hatched.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early February, 2017 © Mark Gary
February 1st,, 2018 © Mark Gary
The pond is full again, and treefrogs are breeding. © Mark Gary
February 27th,, 2018 © Mark Gary February 3rd, 2019 © Mark Gary
California Tiger Salamander and Sierran Treefrog eggs present.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
February 5th, 2019, after light snowfall.
© Mark Gary
February 3rd, 2020 © Mark Gary
The first Sierran Treefrog eggs have appeared.
   
     
March
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
March, 2006 March, 2010 March, 2011 Late March, 2014 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early March, 2015 © Mark Gary Early March, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early March, 2017 © Mark Gary
Sierran Treefrog eggs are hatched, Red-legged Frog egg laying has begun, CA Tiger Salamander larvae are visible.
March 23rd, 2018 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
Early March, 2019, between rainstorms in a very wet winter. © Mark Gary March 2nd, 2020, after zero rainfall in the entire month of February. (The last time that happened, Abe Lincoln was president.) California Tiger Salamander unfolded embryos observed. Other eggs were observed already hatched on 2/20. © Mark Gary    
     
April
California Red-legged Frog Habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
April, 2003 April, 2013 © Mark Gary
Mid April, 2014 © Mark Gary Early April, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early April, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early April, 2017 © Mark Gary
Sierran Treefrogs have laid more eggs.
Early April, 2018 © Mark Gary
Toad eggs now present
Early April, 2019 © Mark Gary
Even greener than March was.
tiger salamander habitat      
April 2nd, 2020, with some new green after it finally rained a little bit.
© Mark Gary
     
     
May
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
May, 2011 May, 2013 © Mark Gary Early May, 2014 © Mark Gary
Early May, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early May, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early May, 2017 © Mark Gary Late May, 2017 Early May, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae observed eating toad tadpoles. Diablo Range Gartersnake observed eating tiger salamander larva.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat  
Early May, 2019 © Mark Gary. Small tiger salamander larvae, red-legged frogs, and gartersnakes observed. May 1st, 2020. A small amount of toad breeding in area ponds was finally observed in mid April, a single mass of red-legged frog eggs in this pond were destroyed after a few days, probably trampled by cattle, and no tiger salamander larvae have been seen lately. This has not been a good year for area amphibians.
© Mark Gary
   
     
June
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
June, 2010 June, 2010 June, 2013 © Mark Gary Early June, 2014 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early June, 2015 © Mark Gary Early June, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early June, 2017 © Mark Gary Early June, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae observed hunting tadpoles.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
Early June, 2019 © Mark Gary. Pond is still overflowing. Large larvae present along with predatory gartersnakes. June 2nd, 2020. No tiger salamander larvae present. Eggs were laid and they hatched, but none of the larvae appear to have survived. © Mark Gary    
     
July
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
July, 2011 July, 2013 © Mark Gary Early July, 2014 © Mark Gary Early July, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early July, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early July, 2017 © Mark Gary Mid July, 2017 © Mark Gary
Tiger Salamander larvae still visible coming up for air.
Early July, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae still observed in pond.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
Early July, 2019 © Mark Gary. The pond level is high for July as it was last year, due to a wet year and maybe the Fall 2017 pond construction. Tiger Salamander larvae, a few tadpoles, and California Red-legged Frogs are visible. July 2nd, 2020. The pond is prematurely dry and free of vegetation, with few amphibians remaining. © Mark Gary    
     
August
pond tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
August, 2010 - As I was trying to photograph tiger salamander larvae in the water, a couple of biologists came and dragged a net through the pond. They found Sierran treefrogs with deformities caused by parasites spread by snails, and they told me that the dreaded chytrid fungus is here, too. August, 2011 August, 2013 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
August, 2014 © Mark Gary Early August, 2015 © Mark Gary Mid August, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early August, 2017. Tiger salamander larvae still visible in pond. © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat  
Early August, 2018 © Mark Gary
Tiger salamander larvae still observed in pond but not tadpoles.
Early August, 2019 © Mark Gary. There's lots of water left for August and still lots of amphibian activity. California Tiger Salamander larvae, California Red-legged Frog tadpoles, and recently transformed juvenile red-legged frogs and Sierran Treefrogs are also present. August 3rd, 2020. Nothing but dirt.
It looks like a larger pond nearby might also dry up this year, which would be unusual. © Mark Gary
 
     
September
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
September, 2012 © Mark Gary
September, 2013 © Mark Gary September, 2014 © Mark Gary Early September, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early September, 2016 © Mark Gary  Early September, 2017 © Mark Gary
Record heat, but water still present with many young CA Red-legged frogs seen in the pond.
1 September, 2018 © Mark Gary
California Tiger Salamander larvae are still observed in the puddle.
Early September, 2019 © Mark Gary.
With plenty of water remaining, the pond is full of recently-metamorphosed California Red-legged Frogs and California Tiger Salamander larvae are still present.
tiger salamander habitat      
September 16, 2020 © Mark Gary
There once was a pond here. Massive wildfires in the region closed access to the pond, but permission was granted to take a picture. Fortunately, the area around the pond was not burned.
     
     
October
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
October, 2013 © Mark Gary October, 2014 © Mark Gary Early October, 2015 © Mark Gary Early October, 2016 © Mark Gary
Nothing left but a puddle.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Mid October, 2016 © Mark Gary
The rains have begun.
Early October, 2017 © Mark Gary Mid October, 2017 © Mark Gary
Heavy equipment has been used to modify the earthen dam that maintains the pond. The outflow channel into the nearby creek has been moved to the other side of the pond and reinforced with rocks.
Early October, 2018 © Mark Gary
The pond is reduced to a puddle once again. A cow got stuck in the mud and had to be pulled out, so the puddle has been temporarily fenced off to prevent any more stranded cows.
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat    
October 1st, 2019 © Mark Gary.
Tiger salamander larvae remain in the pond, which is unusual for October. Many recently-metamorphosed California Red-legged Frogs also remain in the pond.
October 2nd, 2020 © Mark Gary
The sky is full of haze from massive wildfires burning in the region in what has already become California's worst fire season on record, with the season not yet over.
   
     
November
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
November, 2011 © Mark Gary November, 2013 © Mark Gary
November, 2014 © Mark Gary Early November, 2015 © Mark Gary
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
Early November, 2016 © Mark Gary
After a lot of rainfall, news reports are declaring the drought over in Northern California. The pond seems to agree when compared to the lack of water in the three previous Novembers.
Early November, 2017, after the pond has been modified. © Mark Gary Early November, 2018 © Mark Gary
Almost completely dry. Temporary fence to exclude cows still in place.
Mid November, 2018 © Mark Gary
No rain yet. Temporary cow fence removed.
tiger salamander habitat      
November 1st, 2019 © Mark Gary.
A mature tiger salamander larva was found near the end of the month, so maybe it will overwinter. Few recently-metamorphosed California Red-legged Frogs remain, perhaps a result of recent cold weather.
     
     
December
tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat
December, 2013 © Mark Gary Early December, 2014 © Mark Gary Early December, 2015 © Mark Gary December 3rd, 2016 © Mark Gary
CA Tiger salamander eggs were laid this year between November 26th and December 3rd.

tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat tiger salamander habitat  
1 December, 2017 © Mark Gary
After only a little bit of November rain, the pond again contains some water and a lot of California Tiger Salamander eggs that were probably laid in late November.
Early December, 2018 © Mark Gary
After a little rain, the pond is once again ready for salamander breeding.
December 2nd, 2019, just after the first heavy soaking rain of the season, which began the night of December 1st, after five days of light rain. © Mark Gary.

The afternoon of the 3rd, several adult California tiger salamanders were observed swimming in the murky pond. These were probably males awaiting the arrival of females. No sign of eggs or amplexus was observed.

No sign of eggs was observed on the 6th. Eggs were first seen on the 9th. Evidence of a larger breeding event was then observed on the 11th, including several adults remaining in the water.
 
       

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