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A Guide to the Amphibians
and Reptiles of California


Fairview Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps bramei

Jockush, Martinez-Solano, Hansen, and Wake, 2012

 

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Fairview Slender Salamander Range Map
Range in California
: Red

Range Map of all Slender Salamanders in California



observation link





Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander
Adult, upper Kern River Canyon north of Fairview, Tulare County
Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander
Adult, upper Kern River Canyon north of Fairview, Tulare County
Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander
Adult, upper Kern River Canyon, south of Fairview, Tulare County
Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander
Adults, upper Kern River Canyon, south of Fairview, Tulare County Adult, coiling defensively
Fairview Slender Salamander Fairview Slender Salamander comparison  
Adult, underside Comparison of
Fairview Slender Salamander
with  Batrachoseps gregarius
 
     
Habitat
Kern Canyon Slender Salamander Habitat Fairview Slender Salamander Habitat Fairview Slender Salamander Habitat
Habitat, Upper Kern River
Canyon, Tulare County
Habitat, Upper Kern River
Canyon, Tulare County
Habitat, Fairview, 3,500 ft.,
Tulare County
Fairview Slender Salamander Habitat Fairview Slender Salamander Habitat  
Habitat, upper Kern River
Canyon, Tulare County
Habitat, 3,700 ft.,
Tulare County
 
     
Short Video
  Fairview Slender Salamander  
  A tiny juvenile under a rock.  
   
Description
 
Size
Females average 1.4 inches (35.5 mm) in length from snout to vent, males average of 1.35 inches (34.3 mm) in length.

Appearance
A small slender salamander with a relatively broad flattened head and long legs with relatively large feet.
The tail is relatively short and rarely exceeds the total body length.
Short limbs, a narrow head, long slender body, very long tail, and conspicuous costal and caudal grooves give this species the worm-like appearance typical of most Slender Salamanders.
This species is relatively large and robust when compared with many Slender Salamanders, having a comparitively broader head, longer legs, broader feet, and larger toes.
There are four toes on the front and hind feet, which is also typical of Slender Salamanders.
(Other California salamanders have five toes on the hind feet.)

Has 1-3 fewer trunk vertebrae, a longer broader head, and larger limbs with larger feet than neighboring B. simatus.
Color and Pattern
Color is black to brownish black, with silvery to gold or brassy metallic speckles.  Coloring may give the appearance of a dorsal stripe. Uniformly flat black underneath with metallic speckling.

Life History and Behavior
A member of family Plethodontidae, the Plethodontid or Lungless Salamanders.

Plethodontid salamanders do not breathe through lungs. They conduct respiration through their skin and their mouth tissues, which requires them to live in damp environments on land and to move about on the ground only during times of high humidity. (Plethodontid salamanders native to California do not inhabit streams or bodies of water but they are capable of surviving for some time if they fall into water.)

Plethodontid salamanders are also distinguished by their naso-labial grooves, which are vertical slits between the nostrils and upper lip that are lined with glands associated with chemoreception.

All Plethodontid Salamanders native to California lay eggs in moist places on land.
The young develop in the egg and hatch directly into a tiny terrestrial salamander with the same body form as an adult.
(They do not hatch in the water and begin their lives as tiny swimming larvae breathing through gills like some other types of salamanders.)
Activity
Little is known about this species.
This species has been observed active at night during winter and early spring
found beneath surface objects under snow. 
Most Slender Salamander species are active on rainy or wet nights when temperatures are moderate, fall through spring, retreating underground when the soil dries or when air temperature drops to near freezing.
At higher elevations, activity may be restricted to spring and early summer and early fall.
Individuals are typically found beneath rocks, logs, bark and leaf-litter during periods of high moisture, November to March or April, but often only February and March. 
Defense
Slender salamanders use several defense tactics, including:
- Coiling and remaining still, relying on cryptic coloring to avoid detection.
- Uncoiling quickly and springing away repeatedly bouncing over the ground, then remaining still again to avoid detection.
- Detaching the tail, which wriggles on the ground to distract a predator from the salamander long enough for it to escape. 
(After its tail is detached or severed, the salamander will grow a new tail.)
Diet and Feeding
Probably eats a variety of small invertebrates.
Feeding behavior is not well known, but other Batrachoseps species are sit-and-wait predators that use a projectile tongue to catch prey.
Breeding
Reproduction is terrestrial.
Nothing is known of the reproduction of B. bramei.
Like other low to mid- elevation Slender Salamanders, it is assumed that this species lays eggs on land between December and February, depending on stimulation by rainfall, which varies year to year.
Young presumably hatch in early spring, fully formed.

Geographical Range
Endemic to California. Found only in the Upper Kern River Canyon along the west side of Lake Isabella, on the east and west sides of the river, from Wofford Heights north to 1 kilometer north of where South Falls Creek flows into the Kern River.
May be found to range farther north where surveys have not been thorough.

Not found in sympatry with any other slender salamander species. The nearest B. simatus locality is 13 km south. B. robustus has been found 7 km east, but at a much higher elevation.
Elevational Range
Found at elevations of 2821 - 4200 ft. (860-1280 m.)

Habitat
Favors north-facing talus-covered slopes in narrow canyons. These areas typically do not get sun in winter and remain moist and cool into the spring.

Notes on Taxonomy
Upper Kern River Canyon slender salamanders have been recognized as morphologically different from B. simatus - Kern Canyon Slender Salamander since Brame and Murray's work in 1968. They have been included with B. simatus, but mostly treated as a unique species pending a formal description. The species description was eventually published in February 2012 by Jockush, et al. *

Here's a Diagram of the Batrachoseps Complex showing the relationships between species.



Alternate and Previous Names (Synonyms)

Batrachoseps simatus - Kern CanyonSlender Salamander (Stebbins1985, 2003, 2012)

Conservation Issues  (Conservation Status)
B. bramei was formerly recognized as B. simatus - Kern Canyon Slender Salamander. Until it is recognized and treated separately from B. simatus, I will continue to use the status of B. simatus for B. bramei.

Jockusch et al mention that the species might be subject to negative impacts from heavy fire-suppression equipment and road maintenance, but that it is apparently more abundant and more easily found than B. simatus which is listed as a Threatened Species.
Taxonomy
Family Plethodontidae Lungless Salamanders Gray, 1850
Genus Batrachoseps Slender Salamanders Bonaparte, 1841
Species

bramei Fairview Slender Salamander Jockush, Martinez-Solano, Hansen, and Wake, 2012
Original Description
Jokusch et al., 2012, Zootaxa 3190: 1-30.
Brame and Murray 1968:16   B. simatus (part)

Meaning of the Scientific Name
Batrachoseps: Greek - amphibian, frog lizard - describes lizard-like appearance.
bramei: Honors Arden H. Brame Jr.

Related or Similar California Herps
Similar Neighboring Salamanders

Batrachoseps kawia
Batrachoseps regius
Batrachoseps robustus
Batrachoseps simatus
Batrachoseps gregarious
Batrachoseps altasierrae
Batrachoseps relictus
Batrachoseps stebbensi

More Information and References
* Jokusch, Elizabeth L., Inigo Martinez-Solano, Robert W. Hansen, & David B. Wake.
Morphological and molecular diversification of slender salamanders (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Batrachoseps) in the southern Sierra Nevada of California with descriptions of two new species.
© 2012 - Magnolia Press     Zootaxa 3190: 1-30 (2012) www.mapress.com/zootaxa/

Salamander Diversity in the Kern Valley Region

Hansen, Robert W. Kern River Research Area Field Notes Spring 1997 Vol. 6, No. 2

Stebbins, Robert C., and McGinnis, Samuel M.  Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of California: Revised Edition (California Natural History Guides) University of California Press, 2012.

Stebbins, Robert C. California Amphibians and Reptiles. The University of California Press, 1972.

Stebbins, Robert C. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.

Behler, John L., and F. Wayne King. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Powell, Robert., Joseph T. Collins, and Errol D. Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians and Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. The University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Bartlett, R. D. & Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Amphibians of Western North America (North of Mexico) and Hawaii. University Press of Florida, 2009.

Bishop, Sherman C. Handbook of Salamanders. Cornell University Press, 1943.

Lannoo, Michael (Editor). Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species. University of California Press, June 2005.

Petranka, James W. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution, 1998.

Thelander, C. G., ed.   Life on the Edge: A Guide to California's Endangered Natural Resources Volume I: Wildlife.
Biosystems Books, Santa Cruz, California. 1994.

Elizabeth L. Jockusch and David B. Wake
Falling apart and merging: diversification of slender salamanders (Plethodontidae: Batrachoseps) in the American West
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 76, 361–391. 14 March 2002

Conservation Status

The following status listings come from the Special Animals List and the Endangered and Threatened Animals List which are published by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.


The CDFW now lists B. bramei as a unique species.

Organization
Status Listing
NatureServe Global Ranking G3

Vulnerable—At moderate risk of extinction due to a restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors.

NatureServe State Ranking S3

Vulnerable in the state due to a restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation from the state.

U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) None
California Endangered Species Act (CESA) None
California Department of Fish and Wildlife None
Bureau of Land Management None
USDA Forest Service S Sensitive
IUCN Not listed


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