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Southwest Reptiles and Amphibians



Boreal Toad - Anaxyrus boreas boreas

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Two new cryptic species of toads, formerly grouped within Bufo boreas, were discovered in Central Nevada and formally described in 2020:

Hot Creek Toad - Bufo (Anaxyrus) monfontanus
Railroad Valley Toad - Bufo (Anaxyrus) nevadensis


"...these two localized endemic toads are genetically divergent and morphologically distinct, yet were concealed under the range of the broadly distributed western toad (Bufo boreas), which occurs throughout Nevada. The newly discovered species are close in geographic proximity to each other (albeit, in different hydrological basins) but have evolved unique morphological characters that are distinct from each other and distinctive from all allied taxa within the B. boreas species complex."


Michelle R. Gordon, Eric T. Simandle, Franziska C. Sandmeier, and C. Richard Tracy (2020) Two New Cryptic Endemic Toads of Bufo Discovered in Central Nevada, Western United States (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Bufo [Anaxyrus]). Copeia: March 2020, Vol. 108, No. 1, pp. 166-183.


Hot Creek Toad - Bufo (Anaxyrus) monfontanus
(Gordon, Simandle, Sandmeier, Tracy 2020)
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada Adults, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada
       
Habitat
Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat
Habitat, Hot Creek,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Hot Creek,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Hot Creek,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Hot Creek,
Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat    
Habitat, Hot Creek,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Hot Creek,
Nye County, Nevada
   
       
Sounds
This is a short recording of the sounds of the release calls of several toads at Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada. The toads were swimming in shallow water at night, jumping on each others backs, with the toad on the bottom making release calls. Insects and airplanes are heard in the background.

A release call is produced by a male toad or an unreceptive female toad when a frog or other animal (including a human hand) grabs it across the back in the position used for mating or amplexus. It's a frog's way of saying "Get off my back! Let go!" In some species of toads, this call is also made during the breeding season when a male toad enters another male toad's territory.

Video
  Sonoran Green Toad  
  This is a short video with sound showing several toads at Hot Creek, Nye County, Nevada swimming in shallow water at night, jumping on each others backs, with the toad on the bottom making release calls.  
     
Railroad Valley Toad - Bufo (Anaxyrus) nevadensis
(Gordon, Simandle, Sandmeier, Tracy 2020)
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad
Adult, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada
Hot Creek Toad Hot Creek Toad    
Adult, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada    
       
Habitat
Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat Hot Creek Toad habitat
Habitat, Railroad Valley,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Railroad Valley,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Railroad Valley,
Nye County, Nevada
Habitat, Railroad Valley,
Nye County, Nevada
       
Sounds
This is a short recording of the sounds of the release calls of an adult toad in Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The toad was picked up by hand and made these sounds. Insects and airplanes are heard in the background.

A release call is produced by a male toad or an unreceptive female toad when a frog or other animal (including a human hand) grabs it across the back in the position used for mating or amplexus. It's a frog's way of saying "Get off my back! Let go!" In some species of toads, this call is also made during the breeding season when a male toad enters another male toad's territory.
       



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